Charlie the cheesemonger setting up a table at a fundraiser event at our local children's museum
If you're ever in Marquette, stop by Everyday Wines to check out his cheese counter!
It's been years since I wrote a blog! I expect many people's lives look a lot different since December of 2020; mine is practically unrecognizable.
In the midst of so much loss, I also earned tenure in 2020. Without a carrot dangling in front of me anymore, it was difficult to conceive of what was next in my career. Therefore, it felt like a good time to allow my husband to pursue his dreams. So, we made a big move, and our lives are now based in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan where Charlie is running his own cut-to-order cheese counter! We actually did not know what this meant for me when we made the decision to move, but we took the leap anyways. I am lucky that it worked out that I can continue to teach for Wayne State online, and I travel to Detroit when needed.
As a food anthropologist, it is really fun to surround myself with the specialty foods he is able to carry in his shop. Yes, the foods are delicious, but the stories may be the best part of it. For instance, Wilde Weide—pronounced VIL-da VEYE-duh—is a gouda made with painstaking care as part of a 300-year old family operation. The cows, the cheesemakers, and the cheese are the only residents on a small Norwegian island. Each day, eight wheels are produced, and they are serenaded with an aria as they are set to rest for their year+ aging process (The creamery is run by a husband and wife team, and she has operatic training for the University of Amsterdam). When their product is ready to sell, it's loaded on to a row boat to be paddled across to the mainland for distribution. And of course, it is absolutely delicious.
As we got more into specialty foods it became apparent how climate change will dramatically impact the futures of some of our favorites. It's easy to imagine how increased frequency of extreme weather events could wipe out the little Wilde Weide operation. In general, extreme weather in dairying ecozones can impact availability of fresh water, which will impact milk supply. Dairy can be viewed as an "endangered food" whose future availability is at risk due to climate change.
Charlie does not just carry cheese, he carries all sorts of specialty pairings and accoutrements, and his second love after cheese is bean-to-bar chocolate. Chocolate is most certainly an endangered food, with some projections suggesting the cacao plant could go extinct by 2050. That's only a few decades away! Yet there is no inkling of a problem when it comes to the widespread availability and low cost of a chocolate candies at any convenience checkout counter. How can this be? Well, 70% of the world supply of chocolate is grown in West Africa, where costs are kept down by relying on human trafficking, slavery, and child labor. So if your chocolate bar does not specifically indicate that it was not sourced in West Africa, you can pretty safely conclude that at least some of it was, and that its purchase is contributing to these inhumane practices. Even expensive "artisan" chocolate you pick up at Whole Foods or local co-op typically use cacao mass, which is bulk produced and sold wholesale without any sourcing information.
Enter bean-to-bar chocolate. This name is just a description of the process - chocolate that is produced directly from cacao beans as opposed to bulk mass - and this small-scale production gained popularity because differently sourced beans carry different flavor profiles. However, what emerged is better sourcing information, and even growers producing their own chocolates, so although something labeled "bean-to-bar" does not promise better labor practices, many small scale producers celebrate the fact that their chocolate has been sustainably and ethically sourced and provide that information to consumers.
One of the most exciting chocolate brands we have been introduced to is To'ak out of Ecuador, who call themselves "tree-to-bar" producers. They are known as a luxury brand, and some of their offerings are absurdly expensive ($450 absurd), but many are quite reasonable in cost for what they are offering ($20/bar reasonable). To'ak started as a rainforest conservation project. The Ecuadorian cacao variety called “Nacional” traces its genetic lineage back to the first-known cacao trees domesticated by humanity, about 5,300 years ago, and today it is on the brink of extinction.
I immediately liked To'ak because they pay cacao growers the highest prices of any chocolate company I've come across: 3-9x more than the Fair Trade price. I personally like knowing that my dollars are supporting the laborers and not just the capitalists. But one To'ak line got me really excited, their Alchemy line designed in collaboration with Chef Charles Michel. I was first introduced to Chef Michel through the Netflix international cooking competition the Final Table. It was clear that he was passionate about food as a connection to nature and I immediately was drawn to him and his style. THEN he cooked with chapulines! I am used to periodically seeing insects pop up on cooking competitions and other food shows, but they are often featured in the Halloween episode, or generally sensationalized, but Chef Michel spoke about them respectfully without any exoticization. And he made them delicious! He won that week's challenge. I personally believe that the acceptance of insects as food is going to be largely reliant on chefs capturing their unique flavor profile and giving people cravable food experiences they can't find with any other product.
So I was super excited to see he was not only involved with To'ak but that he helped create an Amazonian ants chocolate. And oh my gosh, is the product sublime. Ants are notable for having formic acid as a chemical defense mechanism and pheromone communicator, which gives them an acidic, citrusy flavor. This chocolate plays with this flavor so well, and it is the distinct anty acidity that is left on your palate at the finish. It leaves you wanting to go back for another taste - the ants make you want to go back - and that's what we need more of in this edible insects movement.
I had the great privilege of attending the second Insects to Feed the World conference held this time in Wuhan, China. The first one was four years ago in the Netherlands, spearheaded by Arnold van Huis and the University of Wageningen. I did not attend in 2014 so this was my first opportunity to meet Arnold van Huis, which was a bit of a starstruck moment for me. He was first author on the 2013 UN FAO statement that I think of as a rocket booster for my career. It was an amazing feeling that in his opening keynote address he mentioned my research on an ancient termite mound at Olduvai Gorge, so it was a bit easier to introduce myself to him after that. It gave me a talking point to tell him that that paper won't be out for some time still and that the news picked up my talk from the Paleoanthropology Society meetings although the articles never credited it as such.
The conference was an amazing experience and I want to share some of my takeaways:
So many black soldier flies!
This conference, like all edible insects conferences thus far, including my own, featured insects as both food and feed. And it was the first time that I started to wonder how much longer this joint effort would continue, at least in terms of conference programming. The food side of things was still lamenting issues of consumer acceptance and legislative barriers while the feed side of things was presenting cutting edge research on rearing insects (most commonly black soldier fly larvae) as feed for livestock. It was a little too familiar of a "late bloomer" feeling - watching your friend hit a new life stage while leaving you behind in the dust.
Ultimately I think the momentum the feed crowd has is good for all. The technology that they are developing with their better-funded research is transferable in many ways to food insects. So once of the food side of things catches up in normalization, there is a lot of groundwork that has already been laid. The problem with this on the conference programming side is that all the industry players from both sides - farmers, companies, and agriculture researchers - were tied up in these talks and the parallel programming that was specifically focused on the social aspects of insects as food were not as well attended.
I presented in and chaired the session on ethno-entomophagy. And I shouldn't say the session wasn't well attended because it probably had 50 people or so in there. But I personally feel (and whether this is warranted or just my ego speaking is a debatable) that everyone who works with edible insects in any way would benefit from understanding their cultural significance around the world. So I am going to take the time to give shout-outs to the ethno presentations here:
Research and development of Ophiocordyceps sinensis
R. Han and L. Cao
Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a fungus that grows on caterpillars on the Tibetan plateau and is used in traditional Chinese medicine for a wide range of aliments (News to me! So cool!). Han's talk emphasized the importance of this resource for local people and presented his research on large-scale cultivation of host insects (Thitarodes armoricanus and T. jianchuanensis). They have had success rearing these long-lived species, infecting the adults with the fungus, and harvesting the resulting blooms.
Domestication of African gourmet caterpillars
To start, I loved Ambühl's decision to use the word "gourmet" to reflect that these caterpillars are not just edible, they are greatly enjoyed as food. He presented the work he has been doing with Congolese biologist Augustin Konda to domesticate saturniid caterpillars and rear them as agricultural livestock in a region of the Democratic Republic of Congo where they are no longer found. This project works closely with local people and the children are especially excited to be involved. You can follow their progress on their youtube channel. Definitely go check it out!
Review of past and current status of insects for food and feed in Kenya: reintroducing entomophagy
I was lucky to be in two sessions with Dr. Monica Ayieko. She is brilliant and well-spoken and everyone should be in the room any time she is presenting. Her talk reviewed the historic use of insects as food in Kenya, current scientific work being done on the topic, and the future prospects of edible insects in human and animal nutrition in Kenya. The main point of her talk was a call for collaboration. There is much that needs to be done in order to rear insects on a scale that can be useful for alleviating the challenges of food security. The many different edible species require a specific understanding of their life cycles, etc., and she wants anyone who is interested to come and help them figure these things out in Kenya!
Women and edible insects: a deep, deep history
I presented next and can I say that I am most proud that I was able to keep my own talk within the allotted time? It's a weird piece of pride I have to not go over time, even when I don't have someone holding up signs. Anyway, I digress. I used the 15 minutes to present the overarching theme of my upcoming book (I will present on the Olduvai termite mound at the upcoming Eating Insects Athens (Georgia) conference August 13-15.. Register here!). Women in foraging societies consume insects more than men and this pattern is not restricted to humans, it is also well represented in the great apes, especially chimpanzees, and can be found across the Primate order. Therefore I think it is safe to say that our ancient ancestors were likely displaying a similar pattern. The fact that females rely on them so heavily is a testament to their utility and we should celebrate edible insects as such.
Settlement behaviour of new queens of the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina
T. Phusakhon and D. Wiwatwitaya
Phusakhon presented her research on the ecology of weaver ant queens establishing new colonies. This species is a prominent and important economic edible insect of Thailand and if they are ever going to be cultivated then it is important to understand how new colonies are established in the wild. It is important to remember that social insects like ants, bees, and termites are architects of their homes and that temperature regulation is a major factor to consider. Her work was fascinating showing how the queens are highly selective in choosing their settlement sites with the majority of queens being found on the west sides of trees and on leaves that are superimposed, not curled. If cultivation is to be successful, it is important to consider such factors in creating habitats for captive colonies.
I was very proud of this session and I believe that familiarizing ourselves with the different ways people consume insects is an important step to helping people see them as actual food, not just something "others" eat. To that point, I am grateful that there was a special side session dedicated to understanding how our colonial histories affect edible insects research and industry.
The Importance of Decolonizing Edible Insects
Thanks to Charlotte Payne and John Kinyuru for organizing a panel titled "A discussion of neo-colonial approaches to edible insects and how we can work to decolonise the field in both research and industry." This is a topic that I think every single person attending the conference should have been exposed to, but of course, only the people who already had some familiarity with the concept were the ones that attended the discussion. Therefore I am glad that we were able to record it so that everyone can see. You can watch it here.
The panelists were:
Dr. Komi Fiaboe. Senior Scientist, Leader of the Insect for Food and Feed Program, ICIPE
Dr. Afton Halloran. Consultant - Sustainable Food Systems, Former GREEiNSECT PhD Fellow
Dr. Monica Ayieko. Consumer Scientist, Jooust- Kenyan University
Dr. Amy Franklin, DVM. Farms for Orphans
Dr. Julie Lesnik. Department of Anthropology, Wayne State University
Each of the participants spoke for 5-10 minutes on their personal experiences with overcoming the bias against insects as food that comes from our colonial history. I then wrapped up the presentation part of the session with a very short anthropology-professor lecture about the topic (26:45-32:55) before we opened the discussion to everyone in the room.
A few key takeaway points:
Please check out the video of the panel. I also highly recommend you watch my lecture on Why Don't We Eat Insects in Western Culture if you are new to this concept and want to better understand the impact of our colonial history on edible insects today. I also have another blog post that discusses the topic that you might find useful.
Associating with Associations!
The last thing I want to mention was just how awesome it was to see representatives of the different regional associations come together to discuss their programs and share knowledge. There has been some speculation on whether a "world association" should be founded, but I think that no one needs an additional annual membership they need to keep up with, and that all the benefits of such an association can be had by making sure these sorts of collaborative conversations continue. I foresee that this will be a highlight of every IFW conference from here on out. I will not attempt to summarize the session as this was outside of my area of expertise (you can read a bit about it here), but I do want to give you links to the associations that were present:
The Asian Food and Feed Insect Association- AFFIA
Insect Protein Association of Australia - IPAA
International Platform for Insects as Feed and Food - IPIFF (Europe based)
North American Coalition for Insect Agriculture - NACIA
Final Impression: Energizing
After attending my first edible insects conference in Montreal in 2014 I was so inspired by the energy and commaraderie I felt that I offered to host Eating Insects Detroit in 2016. Some people, including myself, sometimes look at this decision as one of naivete, but it was just something I felt I had to do. I needed to bring this group of people together again. Four years later I still feel the same way after saying goodbye. I am excited that Eating Insects Athens is just around the corner and look forward to being an attendee at the next IFW conference, wherever it may land.
Thought For Food is a movement dedicated to developing solutions to the challenge of feeding the world's growing population. Every year they run a competition where teams from all around the world compete for the $10,000 prize and other benefits such as mentorships, workshops, networking events, and public exposure of their ideas.
This year there were 334 entries into the competition. The top 10 finalists were just named. These teams will go on to participate in a 3-day "start-up accelerator program" before giving their final pitch to a panel of judges in February in Portugal.
Out of a handful of insect-based concepts, the standout and one of the finalists is a a team with a product called C-fu. C-fu is a process that transforms insects into a versatile meat that can be used much like tofu or reprocessed into other products.
Check them out!
The food is definitely something I want to try! These students, hailing from Cornell University and York University, offer a solution to many of the problems associated with getting insects on the dinner table. 1) they are creating something that can be recognized as "food" in a culture where menus are full of hamburgers, tofu-burgers, black bean burgers, tempeh burgers, etc. 2) creating a product that may be easily packaged and easily prepared all over the world. Part of the problem with cricket flour is that the products coming from it are more "meal replacers" (protein bars and the like), rather than meals themselves.
I am very excited for this project and I am so glad they are getting the opportunity to refine their idea and a chance at some good start-up funds. I am hoping that we can make a little noise on their behalf.
If you tweet, these are good handles and tags to use!
@tffchallenge (host of the competition)
@tffcornell2014 (C-fu team)
More than 3,400 attendees participated in Entomology 2014 in Portland, Oregon in November. The 2014 theme, “Grand Challenges Beyond Our Horizons,” was well-represented in two symposia on insects as food:
Insects as Sustainable and Innovative Sources of Food and Feed Production. Wednesday, November 19, 2014: 8:00 AM-12:00 PM Portland Ballroom 253 (Oregon Convention Center) Organizer : Marianne Shockley
Moderator: Marianne Shockley
8:00 AM Welcoming Remarks 8:05 AM
1765 Latitude and attitude: The effects of biodiversity and evolution on entomophagy across the world
Julie Lesnik, Wayne State University 8:25 AM
Daniel Thrasyvoulou, Entovita 8:45 AM
1767 Setting the table for a hotter, flatter, more crowded earth: Insects on the menu?
Marianne Shockley, University of Georgia ; Sonny Ramaswamy, USDA - NIFA 9:05 AM
1768 Cricket parantha: Creative restauranteurs incorporate insects into contemporary Indian cuisine
David Gordon, The Bug Chef ; Meeru Dhalwala, Shanik 9:25 AM Break 9:40 AM
1769 Live insects as feed (or food): Feeding captive insectivores
Mark Finke, Mark Finke LLC 10:00 AM
1770 An analysis of the current and emergent ento industry: Edible insects in the national marketplace
Harman Johar, World Ento 10:20 AM
1771 Mealworms as Solomon's shamir: The table as a temple of peace in a densely populated world
Amy Wright, Austin Peay State University 10:40 AM
1772 Small bugs, big gains: Improving food security in rural southern African communities through microlivestock farming
Valerie Stull, Mighty Mealworms ; Rachel Bergmans, Mighty Mealworms 11:00 AM
1773 Open bug farm: Making insect farming accessible to everyone through an open source farm kit
Daniel Imrie-Situnayake, Tiny Farms 11:20 AM
1774 Teaching with insects as food and feed: Incorporating entomophagy into sustainable agriculture education at the university and community level
Donald Sudbrink, Austin Peay State University 11:32 AM
Panel Discussion 11:52 AM
Beyond Drinking the Worm: Linking Concept with Action to Save the World with Entomophagy. Wednesday, November 19, 2014: 1:30 PM-5:30 PM Portland Ballroom 253 (Oregon Convention Center) Organizers: James Ricci
Moderators: James Ricci
1:30 PM Introductory Remarks 1:35 PM
1973 Eating bugs 101: Why, how, and the role of education in moving past mental taboos
Robert Allen, Little Herds 1:55 PM
1974 Eat what bugs you: Entomophagy and its potential in American markets
Laura D'Asaro, Six Foods ; Rose Wang, Six Foods 2:15 PM 1974 Withdrawn 2:35 PM
1975 Sustainable critters or delicious fritters? Consumer perceptions of edible insects in The Netherlands and Thailand
Catriona Lakemond, Wageningen University 2:55 PM
1976 Toward maximizing efficiency of black soldier fly production for food and feed
John Schneider, Mississippi State University 3:15 PM
1977 Insects as food: An overview of U.S. regulatory requirements
Ricardo Carvajal, Hyman, Phelps & McNamara, P.C. 3:35 PM 1978 Withdrawn 3:35 PM
1978 Moving beyond the Bizarre Foods concept and tapping the 'foodie' culture to promote entomophagy
Adena Why, University of California 3:55 PM
1979 Ento: The art of eating insects
Aran Dasan, Ento 3:55 PM
1980 What are we actually eating when we consume witchetty grubs?
Alan Yen, Department of Environment and Primary Industries ; Conrad Bilney, La Trobe University ; Susan Lawler, La Trobe University 3:55 PM
1981 Entomophagy at The New York Entomological Society 100th Anniversary Celebration, May 20, 1992, The Explorer’s Club, Manhattan, New York
Louis N. Sorkin, American Museum of Natural History 3:55 PM
1982 A market analysis of entomophagy in the United States
Stephen Bayes, University of California ; Virginia Emery, University of California 3:55 PM Break and Poster Viewing 4:10 PM 1983 Palm weevils: easy to farm and good to eat!
Mark S. Hoddle, University of California 4:30 PM
1984 Importance of entomophagy in Madagascar
Maminirina Randrianandrasana, University of Illinois ; May R. Berenbaum, University of Illinois 4:50 PM
1985 Act locally, reach globally: Marketing and promoting entomophagy begins at home
Jerome F. Grant, University of Tennessee ; Renee Follum, University of Tennessee 5:10 PM
1986 Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security
Arnold van Huis, Wageningen University 5:30 PM
1987 What entomophagy really means, and why it's so challenging
David Gracer, Community College of Rhode Island 5:50 PM
The organizers did a great job at representing the range of topics and issues currently being discussed regarding entomophagy. It was a great day.
Big things are already in the works for me in my new city!
Last week I attended the Eating Innovation Conference on Edible Insects in Montreal. It was the first time I gave a talk to a group of people who were already entirely on board with insects as food! MY Q&A portion did not include "have you eaten insects?" or "what do they taste like?" It was amazing!
I have been wanting to get involved with this community for some time now. There are people very active on social media, so I have become acquainted with them in that way, but I was finally able to shake some hands, put faces to names, and have dynamic discussions with them for the first time last week. One of the most notable things was the diverse crowd that was present. In one of the sessions we listed off the disciplines that were being represented at the conference. We came up with at least sixteen. Specialties ranged from anthropology, entomology, and agriculture to marketing, advertising, and business start-ups to name a few.
It was wonderful spending three days surrounded by people with such passion for making the world a better place. Such innovators and forward-thinkers. And then it dawned on me that those words are also often used to describe the people that are part of the revitalization of Detroit. Urban gardens, permaculture, and resource sharing are all burgeoning in the city. Entrepreneurs are making their homes here as well and creating wonderful food and drink culture in the area. I think the D is ready for a big bug banquet of some sort, so I thought, why not bring the next edible insects conference to Detroit?!
Dates will not be set for some time, but you can see that I am already brainstorming and making connections.
In addition to the conference proceedings, we'll have public talks and tastings where everyone is welcome. I absolutely cannot wait. If you are interested in more info or in helping out in some way, feel free to contact me here.
This year's international Hult Prize goes to McGill University's team Aspire for their "Insects feed the world" project.
The Hult Prize is the largest student competition aimed at solving the world's social challenges. In partnership with the Clinton Global Initiative, the 2013 challenge was proposed by former President Bill Clinton for student groups to create solutions for the "Global Food Crisis."
Key issues of the Global Food Crisis highlighted by the program:
Six regional finalists (London, Dubai, San Francisco, Boston, Shanghai, and online) competed for the one million dollar prize. The ultimate winner was McGill University's Aspire. Here is their mission in their own words:
"Apsire learned through research during the summer that food insecurity is not an issue of lack of food. The vast majority in urban slums do not go hungry. But they lack access to affordable nutrition. Many suffer from malnourishment and nutrient deficiencies despite being overweight or obese. Therefore, the problem of food security in urban slums is not one of food being expensive per se, but of nutritious food being unavailable or overpriced compared to cheaper, less nutritious offerings.
Our disruptive social enterprise, Aspire, aims to improve access to edible insects worldwide. We develop and distribute affordable and sustainable insect farming technologies for countries with established histories of entomophagy, or insect-consumption. Our farming solutions stabilize the supply of edible insects year-round, drastically improving and expanding the economic ecosystem surrounding insect consumption in the regions serviced. Not only do our durable farming units create income stability for rural farmers, they have a wider social impact by lowering the price of edible insects. This is central to our mission of increasing access to highly nutritious edible insects amongst the poorest, and therefore neediest, members of society."
Other projects included creating idiot-proof paper strips for planting seeds, but the other standout was Sokotext, a project that uses the power of mobile phones to aggregate demand in the slums and unlock wholesale prices for micro-entrepreneurs.
This is a big win for the McGill team and for the insects-as-food movement. To win such a prestigious award, and in the face of tech-savvy competition, is especially encouraging to me. I believe this group will do well and go far.
The UN said what? A statement by the Food and Agriculture Organization supporting the prospect of insects as food and feed
In May of this year, the FAO released an extensive report - 201 pages, to be exact - titled "Edible insects
Future prospects for food and feed security."
Present-day consumption of insects is minimal in developed countries but the United Nations voiced their support for insects as a sustainable food source for feeding growing populations. In order to move forward with the agenda, the FAO laid out a few tasks that are immediately at hand:
From my own work I can say that what is necessary is more than just getting nutritional values from some insects that people eat, but getting standardized and comparable values from as many of the nearly 2000 recorded edible insects as possible. I also believe that understanding how insects are consumed around the world, as well as over the course of human evolution, is information that consumers value when making educated decisions about their diets. I expect that there is a "paleo diet" fad to be had with insects.
The biggest push for insect cultivation is that it is a more environmentally-friendly to raise these "mini-livestock" than it is to tend our current go-to sources of protein cattle and pigs. We need more hard evidence. The truth is that we don't have an example of insect-rearing on the industrial scale, so we can't compare it to what we know after decades of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs, or feedlots). More research needs to be done to model the environmental impacts of mass-rearing insects.
Another area that may hold even more potential is the use of insects in feed for our current livestock. We currently feed everything corn. And more corn. Maybe some animal byproducts in there for protein. Why not insects? Eating bacon raised on insects may be an easier sell than eating the insects themselves. Cows should be fed grass, but pigs are omnivores. Future studies need to investigate the nutritional values of pork from grain-fed pigs versus pork from pigs with insect-based feed. I imagine there would be improvement, possibly similar to the omega-3 fatty acid story in grass-fed vs. grain-fed beef, but how much better is yet to be seen.
The other two tasks are outside of my area of expertise, but it makes sense that promoting insects is the development of a new agri-business, and with that comes the social and legal impacts. I expect the legal implications are the same as with any food business interested in a worldwide market, but it is something that needs to be understood before the insects-as-food movement can really take hold. Socially, the first big question is cost to the consumer. Are we talking dollar menu or gourmet menu? Are we talking grocery shopping for ramen or for steak? Additionally, how is that cost going to effect the social implications of choosing to utilize the resource? It all comes down to marketing. Insects are not cheap, primitive and disgusting.. insects are accessible, innovative and exciting!
Research out of Wageningen University, Netherlands has been at the forefront of understanding insects for human consumption. Dr. Yde Jongema has compiled the most extensive list of edible insects, counting nearly 2,000 different edible species and graduate student Joost van Itterbeeck just wrote an article featured on sciencealert.com.au that is making its way around the Internet.
Van Iterbeeck describes five of the most promising insects for consumption in the western world. Mealworms, the larval forma of the mealworm beetle, are especially interesting in regards to cultivation for human food because they are one of the edible insects known in temperate climates and they have long been cultivated as bait and pet food. Apparently, the Netherlands has started the movement to mass-rear the insects for human food and research is finding that when processed, the texture and taste has been well received by western customers.
Way to go, Netherlands!
Julie Lesnik received her PhD studying the role of termites in the diet of fossil hominins and has since started exploring insects as food more broadly.